Trail of TearsPresident Jackson believed that all of the Native Americans should be west of the Mississippi River because his constituents, or his supporters, wanted them out of their territory. The Indian Removal Act of 1836 passed by President Jackson, allowed President Van Buren to use force and send them west from Georgia, up through Illinois, down through Arkansas, and west of the Mississippi River. Over 4,000 Cherokees died on their journey to present day Oklahoma of disease, hunger, and exhaustion. The trail they took is now referred to as the “Trail of Tears” because of the hardships and struggles the Native Americans faced when being forced out of American territory.
President Jackson and the IndiansIn the 19th century, the U.S. was rapidly expanding into the lower south and all western regions. White settlers faced what they considered an obstacle when they thought the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole and many other tribes were affecting their progress. Jackson, an advocate for Indian removal, began to forcefully send these Indians as a general in 1818, when he was ordered to invade the Seminoles in Spanish Florida, across the Mississippi. Many tribes attempted to resist, but in 1836 Jackson, as President, created the "Indian Removal Act" which stated the president had power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west.
The Big Oops IDDylan O’ConnorThe Big Oops refers to the failure of the Whig Party’s plan to get Jackson out of the white house. Their plan consisted of creating a bill to recharter the national bank before the 1832 election. They figured Jackson would veto the bill, and then congress would override the veto making the president look foolish. Then, they believed, the Whig Party would win the white house. However, there were not enough votes to override the veto and the bank was dead. The Whig Party didn’t get one of its members elected president, or even in national contention for president as Republican John Quincy Adams was the one who lost to Jackson in the election. The money from the national bank was then deposited in 23 smaller banks to loan out to anyone who needed a loan. This was extremely risky because these small unreliable loans were what caused the panic of 1819.
Th Kitchen CabinetThe “Kitchen Cabinet” was a term used to describe a National Government cabinet during Jackson’s rein as President of the United States from 1828 to 1832. This cabinet was an unofficial cabinet of journalists that Jackson created so he could know the desires of the people of the United States. A member of the “Kitchen Cabinet” was Francis Preston Blair, who was the founder and editor of the Globe, a newspaper that “championed democratic causes and vigorous journalism”. In Jackson’s regular Cabinet his secretary of war was John Eaton’s wife, who had rumors spreading regarding her reputation. Jackson was angered so he held a meeting and told anyone to leave who believed in the rumors. Only Martin Van Buren stayed, and the rest Jackson dismissed from his cabinet. Now in the National Government, on top of the President’s cabinet, there is a Press core, which is similar to Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet.-Alli Toffolon
The Kitchen Cabinet editedThe “Kitchen Cabinet” was a term used to describe a National Government cabinet during Jackson’s rein as President of the United States from 1828 to 1832. This cabinet was an unofficial cabinet of journalists that Jackson created so he could know the desires of the people of the United States. A member of the “Kitchen Cabinet” was Francis Preston Blair, who was the founder and editor of the Globe, a newspaper that “championed democratic causes and vigorous journalism”. In Jackson’s regular Cabinet his secretary of war was John Eaton. John Eaton’s wife had rumors spreading regarding her reputation, which angered Jackson. He then held a meeting and told anyone to leave who believed in the rumors. Only Martin Van Buren stayed, and the rest Jackson dismissed from his cabinet. Now in the National Government, on top of the President’s cabinet, there is a Press core, which is similar to Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet.-Alli Toffolon
“King Mob Enters Office” – In 1828 Andrew Jackson won the Presidential election with John C. Calhoun as his Vice President. This was the first time in American history a modern campaign occurred. Jackson opened the White House to the public for his Inauguration reception. This event drew a huge crowd of people to the White House for the celebration. These people represented the majority of the population, the common man, who supported Jackson.
you must go further and discuss the change in US politics that has lasted through 2012
Nicholas BiddleNicholas Biddle was President of the National Bank. His structured banking avoided inflation, confusion, and a depression. He practiced sound banking, giving loans to those who were less of a risk to pay them back. His style of banking seemed to favor the eastern businessmen over the small western farmers, because his banking made the wealthy in the east even wealthier. Biddle made it harder to get loans, and strengthened the economy. President Jackson disagreed with his style and wanted small farmers in the west to be able to get loans without collateral. This led to McCulloch verse Maryland, which Jackson ignored and claimed the bank was unconstitutional. Jackson said, “The opinion of the judges has no more authority over congress than the opinion of congress over the judges, and on that point the president is independent of both.” Eventually the bank was made useless by the removal of the money by Roger B. Taney.Tipper Higgins
The Ordinance of Nullification-The Ordinance of Nullification declared that the Tariff of Abominations, which increased the price of European goods, was declared null and void by the South Carolina Legislature. Because the South did not make many goods, they were forced to buy the more expensive European commodities. They believed that the Tariff of Abominations was passed just to help the Northern businessmen, even though it was harmful to the Southern economy. In 1833, after Jackson threatened South Carolina with military force, they came to a compromise that will lower the tax rate over the next 9 years, until it reached the 1816 rate once again. This showed that South Carolina was not afraid to go against the federal government, and possibly leaving the union.
VP John Calhoun resigned over this incident and returned to South Carolina
There were several main reforms promoted by Jacksonian Democracy. Among them were Loyal Opposition, the replacement of caucuses with conventions, and the ending of the land requirement for voting. Loyal opposition meant that there were at least two parties of which could respectfully oppose each other while still remaining loyal to the nation as a whole. A caucus was a meeting at which party leaders elected new officials. The Jacksonian reform movement thought it would be more democratic to hold conventions instead, which were meetings at which all of the representatives from the states elected officials. Conventions were more democratic because more American citizens were represented in elections. The land requirement for voting was also taken away. Instead of only white male landowners being able to vote, now all white males above the age of 21 could vote as well. These reforms created a democratic government because they increased representation.Allie McErlean
naming the two parties that developed then and the ones we still have now would offer evidence that this reform worked.
Hard Cider CampaignThe hard cider campaign, used in 1840, was the campaign used by William Henry Harrison who was the victorious general of the Battle of Tippecanoe. This campaign portrayed Harrison, who was in fact a rich man, as a commoner in a ‘log cabin drinking cider’. This campaign championed Harrison as the every-day person’s president, as well as the champion of the commoners, not the aristocrats. This campaign’s central focus was not on policies but it was about empty promises and resounding slogans that the people liked to hear. This was the first type of modern political campaign where Harrison was appealing to masses other than what he himself was. This style of campaign is still used today, and it started with Harrison accused by his opposition of being a man who just wants to go in his log cabin and drink cider.
Peggy Eaton AffairWhile Jackson was in office, his secretary of war was John Eaton. Rumors were being spread about his wife, Peggy Eaton, that would hurt her, along with her husband’s, reputation. Since the Eatons were close to Jackson, he was angered by these rumors and called for a meeting of the cabinet. At this meeting he ordered anyone to leave that believed the rumors about Peggy. After many left, Martin Van Buren was the only one still present. His dedication proved his loyalty and made his name better known, for shortly after, only a few years later, he became president. This showed that Jackson was a man that not only was a good friend, but also was more concerned with his own leadership than the leadership and loyalty of his cabinet members.Emily Hubbard
Whig Plan: The Big OopsThe Whig's were a newly founded political group to over throw Andrew Jackson while he was running for his second term in office. President Jackson thought that the National Bank was un-Constitutional and wanted to get rid of it. The last time America had gotten rid of their national bank, the nation its self started deteriorating. There was no way of regulating how much currency was being printed and how much was being given out. The Whigs wanted to propose a bill to keep the national bank. Knowing that Jackson would not pass it, the Whigs were planning on the congress to over-ride Jackson's vote, therefore making Jackson look idiotic and getting the Whig candidate elected as president, John Quincy Adams. The only fault was that after Jackson disagreed to pass this bill the congress was hesitant to override his authority; the veto stuck and the National Bank was gone. Jackson was re-elected and all of the money from the national banks were deposited into 23 banks in the west. The significance of the Whig's choice, 'the Big Oops' was a group of people attempting to get rid of Jackson's almost totalitarian government.
-Nicholas BiddleNicholas Biddle was the president of the U.S. Bank under Jackson’s presidency. Nicholas avoided inflation, confusion and depression in order to improve the economy. His style of banking seemed favored to the wealthy business man in the east over the farmers in the west because his policy followed the idea of capitalism. Biddle practiced sound banking, which was giving loans to people who are less risky to pay them back. This idea was constructed under the capitalism because the bank had to be sure whether people who own loans could pay them back. In order to strengthen the economy, he made it hard to get loans. Since his policies were favored to people in the East, people in the west were complaining about Biddle’s policy because it would make the wealthy in the east even wealthier. Later, President Jackson disagreed with Biddle’s policy and claimed that people in the west should get loans without showing collateral.
"King Mob enters the Office":"King Mob enters the Office" is an idea that reveals Jackson's opinion of the people. Jackson was a regular man; he was one of us. A common person rose to the presidency. Once elected, Jackson opened the White House to the public. He let the people come into the White House to show that they are equals; he is one of them. The problem was that once the people entered his office, there was chaos. The chaos showed a weakness in Jackson. Jackson was chosen due to his past militarist and judicial experience but will that still be a good reason where he wasn't able to control the chaos in his office. This event reveals that if the office is chaotic that means that the government is weak. how can our government succeed if there is chaos in the aspects that make up the government. Jackson brought the idea of real democracy but this event was the last time there was real democracy.
Spoils SystemThe Spoils System was developed during Andrew Jackson's presidency. During his campaign he promised his workers that if and when he became president, he would appoint them into a high position. Jackson would remove office holders who disagreed with him, and replaced them with his own supporters. He believed that a long term in office would lead a man to forget that he was to serve the people of his country, not just to advocate his own personal views. There were drawbacks to this idea, though. Through his favoritism of past workers, he chose people who only believed in his personal views. Unlike Washington, there was no opposition in his cabinet, and he was not able to hear representatives from multiple parties. This one-sided view of politics went against his previous "democratic" beliefs that got Jackson into the White House in the first place. There was also the lack on convenience for Jackson to have found new position holders for all of the people that he fired. It was very inefficient to have eliminated so many people all at once. With so many ne
The Corrupt Bargain:The corrupt bargain was used during the election of 1824 when John Quincy Adams was against Andrew Jackson, as well as William Crawford and Henry Clay. Since no one won the majority of the electoral votes, the House of Representative had to decide who will become the president between Adams and Jackson, the top two candidates with the most electoral votes. As a political tactic, John Quincy Adams supported Henry Clay, who didn’t have a chance to win the presidency, and decided that if he becomes president, Clay will be his Secretary of State. Adams thought this method, known as the corrupt bargain, would work because it was a win, win situation. It gave Adams a better chance to become president while ensuring Henry Clay the position of Secretary of State if Adams becomes president. The opposition of Adams and Clay called this the corrupt bargain as a political label. Although, when Jackson eventually wins the election, he uses the spoils system, which is essentially the same thing as the corrupt bargain but multiplied.- Nicky Friedman
The Abominable Tariff:In 1816, the Madison administration passed a tariff that raised the rate of taxes. Jackson passed a 1832 law that raised this 1816 tax in order to pay for the new roads system. South Carolina was extremely against the tariff and even wanted to secede from the Union, so in order to keep the peace, the State Legislature passed the Ordinance of Nullification, which ceded that South Carolina will not pay the new tax. By doing so, South Carolina was advocation for states' rights. However, Jackson believed strongly that the executive branch was the most powerful in Unites States' government and, since he ruled in an almost totalitarian manner, he stated that whoever defies the law of the United States will be hanged. In order to compromise with Jackson and South Carolina, Congress passed the 1833 Tariff law in order to gradually lower the rate over the course of 9 years by increasing the rate for three years, staying level for three years, and decreasing for three years. Congress wanted the rate to be able to decrease from its 1832 spike, so that Jackson could have enough money to pay for new roads and the taxes were not burdened upon the United States for longer than needed.
The Kitchen Cabinet (1828-1832) was President Andrew Jacksons personal collection of friends from Tennessee, journalists, and newspaper editors. This group met twice a month and would unofficially give advice to Jackson and get facts about the presidency that they would later spread (a form of good publicity). This was also a way for Jackson to see what the people of America wanted. Jackson favored his personal cabinet over the official cabinet. Krissy G
Jackson’s view of democracy: Andrew Jackson, the 7th president of the United States of America, relied upon backing the democratic principles in order to win the 1828 election. During the campaigning Jackson allowed his name to be associated with the democratic party in hopes that it would gain him the popular vote. This political reform party became known as Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson, although he did not necessary feel strongly about this political party enforced this movement with the hopes that it would enhance his chances to become president. This became the first example of modern campaigning. Although Jackson and his vice President John Quincy Adams promised to enforce many democratic principles upon victory, when Jackson entered the office it became evident that he would not be standing by these views that he had once so heavily relied on to gain him his presidency.Eloise Morrow
Correction: Vice president was John C. Calhoun.-Eloise Morrow
Jacksonian MovementPaper BallotsBefore the movement, voting was done by announcing out loud the person you were voting for. This method gradually changed throughout the years to paper ballots. This added secrecy to the popular vote, but it also made the process much easier to corrupt, for politicians could pay people to miscount the votes or to vote for a candidate of their choice. The election of more office holdersThis part of the movement was mainly to stop the spoils system, which gave political supporters jobs in the government. Jackson used this to replace one in six of the government officials during his presidency, but he appointed people who he thought were suited for the jobs, he did not give the people the chance to vote on their government officials. Pedro Escobar
Democratic Reform Opposition: Before Jackson was elected president, a reform movement took place that allowed him to take his place in office. some of these democratic beliefs included a loyal, two party system, the idea that conventions should replace caucus's, and the ending of the land requirement to vote. The multiple party system proposed the idea that different parties with different beliefs could and should be put in place but must maintain one major goal, to do whats best for the country. How each party achieves that goal however, is up for their interpretation. Jackson believed that conventions should take the place of caucus' because conventions were mainly gatherings of members of their political party that select the candidate that will best fulfill his duties as the president. Conventions were more effective than caucus' because of this. Jackson realized that the requirement of land to vote was flawed in that there could potentially be a great deal of people who are perfectly capable, educated voters who don't own land and live in places like the city. This was obviously looked at as a problem and the democratic reform fixed this issue.Michael Schiffer
The Depression of 1837There was a plethora of causes for the depression of 1837. The first being, Jackson’s little knowledge in the economic realm and as president he has fair amount of say in economic affairs. First, Jackson ignored the Mculloch v. Maryland, which deemed the national bank constitutional and then eliminated the national banks completely. Mr. Jackson then set up twenty-three pet banks in the west, where Jackson’s cohorts were living, and transferred all the national currency there. These pet banks were then giving the incentive to give out bad loans, which ignored client’s collateral. These were some the most influentially causes in the depression of 1837. Mr. Gulotta stated that this Identification would not be on the quiz.Sam Sabin
Trail of Tears Identity During Jackson’s presidency one matter that came up was the trouble with Indians, or native-American’s, specifically the Trail of Tears. Jackson did not have an opinion about Indians, however, the way he felt was that if they were in the way or causing trouble for his voters then he should do something about them. Therefore, Jackson believed that all Indians belonged west of the Mississippi River and he pushed them westward with force. Not only did he believe this, but his cabinet and advisers wanted them gone as well, so he believed it was right. So, when Georgia began taking the Cherokee’s land for no reason, the Supreme Court stated that as a state you could not do that, this was through the court case of Worcester versus Georgia in 1832. However, Jackson still believed that they needed to be pushed west, therefore, he ignored the Supreme Court and the Trail of Tears began.